Anjela Duval, A Breton Peasant-Writer–Ronan Le Coadic*

While Breton literature written in French counts such prestigious names as Chateaubriand, Lamennais or Ernest Renan, literature written in the Breton language is quite unknown. Because it has rarely been translated, it remains almost entirely ignored by those living outside of the peninsula. Yet due to a particular socio-linguistic context it is also relatively unknown within Brittany itself.

Indeed, very early the Breton language was ignored by the upper classes in Brittany, who were fascinated by the French royal court. The last Breton sovereign to give speeches in the Breton language was Alain IV Fergant. This was at the beginning of the XIIth century. Several centuries after the annexation of Brittany by France, the Breton language was repressed by the State. The struggle around language began during the revolutionary Terror. It was revived by the Third Republic, which forbade the use of Breton in church and encouraged public school teachers to punish children who spoke Breton in school. These factors led to the transformation of Breton into a popular, mostly spoken language. Its use greatly declined after the Second World War.

Nonetheless, beginning in the XIXth Century and mostly after the 1930’s, a few men of letters attempted to revive the Breton language and to endow it with literary works of quality. While their elitist efforts undeniably bore some fruit, the vast majority of the Breton population was not affected (1 100 000 persons in 1950, 250 000 in 1990), since most were incapable of reading in Breton. Thus we are presently faced with a paradoxical situation: talented authors belonging to the regional intelligentsia, yet who are rarely native Breton speakers, produce works in Breton that have a universal appeal, yet which are both inaccessible to non-Breton speakers (since rarely translated), and indecipherable to native speakers (since they are illiterate in their mother tongue). One author does however stand out from the rest. She is the poet Anjela Duval. A few of her works have been translated into French and English. Moreover, being at once a peasant, a native-speaker and an erudite, she expressed herself in an admirable way, mingling literary Breton with the vernacular language. Not only does her work distinguish her from other Breton authors, but so does her life. In the present article we will attempt to present the teachings of universal appeal contained in both her work and her life.

Anjela Duval devoted herself to the search for the truth that lies beyond appearances without concerning herself with what her contemporaries might think of her or of her quest. She fought during her entire life to harmonize her actions and her thoughts. Last but not least, she found happiness by devoting her life to others…


The quest for truth

See what you shall do

Anjela Duval spent her life meditating. Those who have read her attentively or who have had the good fortune to spend time with her cannot doubt this. While she was born in 1905, she began writing only during the 1960’s. During the first fifty-five years of her life, besides cultivating her land and tending to her parents, she patiently developed her wisdom. Her concept of life was made up of three ideals: love of nature, spirituality and love of her people.

You know well Lord

Which Goals I attempt

To reach because it is you

Who has shown me

Faith. Country.
The Soil of the Country.

Together these three ideals formed a logical and powerful system. Yet, to fully understand Duval, we must study them one by one.


A. Love of nature

Genetic engineering has progressed very rapidly since Anjela Duval’s death in 1981. It is so far reaching that humans can now modify living nature. scientists can give children to sterile parents, can create genetically modified plants and animals, and can even clone an animal in a laboratory using one of its cells, such as was the case for the sheep Dolly in 1997… Advances in biotechnology represent progress for medical research : they should make it possible to produce vaccines against terrible illnesses such as hepatitis B, AIDS or tuberculosis, and to discover the genes responsible for certain diseases, and soon perhaps to modify these genes in order to eradicate the diseases all together. Biotechnologies are also useful on an economic level: they make it possible to produce increasingly resistant livestock and plants. Yet all these techniques also pose serious ethical dilemmas: how far can humanity go in modifying nature ? What limits does society wish to set regarding interventions on living creatures?

Twenty years ago it was impossible to foretell what genetic engineering can do today. Hence Duval could not speak of this. Yet the poets’s reflections on nature can help us to forge our own opinion concerning these contemporary problems. For her, nature is “a gift from God”; a gift that we can make use of, provided we respect it and help it to grow. According to Duval, as part of nature, human beings must remain humble and modest. Her image of the world is entirely opposite from that held by researchers and the economic forces that support them. Like Descartes, they believe that humans must “make themselves the masters and possessors of nature”. Here are two entirely opposite modes of thought. Where is the truth? In Duval’s humility and her respect for nature? Or in the vain confidence that Descartes places in humanity? This is difficult to answer. Nevertheless, it is time to launch a vast debate about these questions. Advances in genetic research represent one of the most complex and most important issues of the emerging XXIst Century. And Duval offers a clearcut point of view, one that might be taken into account when making the necessary decisions, whatever they may be.

Anjela Duval believed that nature and the earth produce wealth only in relation to what humans give them. In this sense we can say that she was an “ecologist” before her time. In her poems about struggle, as well as in her criticism against the destruction of nature, she anticipated some of the ecological disasters that threaten humanity today. In “Sahara?” she evokes the issue of deforestation and of climatic changes that are of concern today.

Like a painting of the World’s end

The flat plain in the horizon

So many giant cadavers

Their limbs scattered, their sap bleeding

The huge trees decapitated

(Oh the murder of the Innocents!)

She did not see such devastation as inevitable, rather she considered man to be responsible…

So stupid, so cruel and so egotistical

With all his science

Lacking any conscience

And filled with boundless arrogance

Similarly, concerning the question of water, Duval thought that the Breton farmers’ new methods of production were dangerous:

I will never accept the treatment inflicted upon these lands today. Nowadays, we exhaust the earth by using so much fertilizer. I also use some, but as little as possible. My compost heap is not sufficient. If I were younger I would be tempted to use biological agriculture. (…) I see most producers of cauliflowers and potatoes as poisonous. They use too much fertilizers.

These words are perhaps no different from those we hear today in Brittany and elsewhere, now that the water is polluted and that it seems clear to everyone that we have gone too far down the path towards maximizing production. However, Duval spoke in these terms as early as 1970! Moreover, she did not blame the farmers as much as she did the banks and multinational corporations that encourage them to increase their productivity. She blamed “big capital, the corrupter, the exploiter”.

Thirty years later, on top of their tractors or in their huge green houses, farmers are no longer in direct contact with the earth as their ancestors were, or as Duval was on her farm. We mentioned earlier that a lamb was made from a sheep without any prior mating process; but for a long time now we have been able to industrially produce vegetables without any earth at all… Little by little, humanity is distancing itself from “natural” life, and becoming a sort of god capable of creating and modifying life in laboratories. Duval, by contrast, felt that she was only one small part of infinite cosmic nature. She lived in physical proximity to the earth: “the earth is like my second body”, she often said. This was part of her spirituality. For example, in “Bennozh dit”, she told God:

You give the Earth, the rain and the heat.

I fertilize, sow, weed, harvest.


B. Spirituality

It is commonplace to say that our society is presently in search of meaning. Yesterday, religious or political ideologies, family and school offered or imposed clear models. Today, and for some time now, in western societies, religions have been declining; political ideals are disappearing, especially since the fall of the Berlin wall; the family has been shaken by the events of 1968. The old patriarchal model has fallen apart and there is no other dominant model. Last of all, the school system is in a state of crisis… Consequently, it is becoming more and more difficult to understand the world and to know how to act “for good” in life. There are no more shared references. Each of us tries to do as he can on his own, without any certainty that he is acting as he should. Anjela Duval clearly perceived these changes, especially on the religious level. But she herself did not experience them. Her intense, immense and simple spirituality came from her popular Breton catholic faith. It was characterized by the tribute paid to the dead and to the national saints. Faith lent meaning to her life and to all that she saw around her. For example, when the trees were ablaze with autumn colors, in her eyes it was because God had given…

Thousands of bits and pieces

Of his royal mantle

To dress the trees

With gold and purple

She saw God in everything and spoke to him in the same manner as she did to the old national saints or to the dead. In fact, many of her poems were true prayers.

Faith sometimes leads to extremism. But this is rare in Brittany, where the Gospel has always been interpreted as a message of peace, and where political traditions are rather pacifist. Although the practice of Catholicism has greatly diminished in Brittany, one wonders whether the reminiscence of Catholicism does not contribute to the fact that Bretons are half as likely as other French citizens to vote for the extreme right. At any rate, Anjela Duval’s faith was very strong, yet peace-loving and open to other forms of spirituality such as Islam and Buddhism. Here again she exhibits a very modern form of behavior, without falling into the traps one finds here and there. Indeed, many people today are searching for some form of spirituality. Often they seek to quench their thirst for spirituality by combining elements from different traditions. Unfortunately, sects sometimes take advantage of such quests and attempt to manipulate the most fragile minds. Thanks to her numerous readings Duval had a good knowledge of the druidism practiced by her ancestors, and even of Buddhism, as well as many other beliefs. Everything touched her. Yet she would never have become a victim of sects precisely because the foundations of the simple faith that her parents had passed on to her were so strong.

Duval’s spirituality was not made up simply of a popular catholic faith informed by her readings about various other systems of belief. She was an authentic mystic, who marveled at life and communed with all living creatures, however small and ugly.

Ah ! How heedful I am at each step
Heedful of crushing, of smashing
Along the path or through the field
Tiny humble creatures beneath my foot:
The green beetle crouched in the moss,
The minute ant carrying
With great effort and ingenuity
The short-straw to her anthill.
Pretty little flowers half-hidden in the grass,
Trying to open their heart to the Sun.

It seems to me that this was not properly understood by all her readers. She did not revel in sentimentality, but felt close and fraternal towards all living things because she felt equal to them, neither superior nor inferior. In this sense her spirituality was similar to that of Buddhists. She did not however spend all her love on plants and animals. She was not a pessimist as far as humanity is concerned. Her love was first directed towards the whole of humanity. She felt particularly empathetic towards her “brothers in sorrow”, the peasants, and towards her people, the Bretons.


C. Patriotism

There is nothing new in stating that we are living in a world increasingly unified, even though differences between various groups remain important. This unification–some say, uniformization–is a product simultaneously of progress in the communication technologies and of the continual acceleration of economic exchange. Yet at the same time as this movement toward uniformity develops, everywhere we see men and women anxiously isolating themselves. The danger of a “balkanization” of the world exists and is often evoked. Duval would not have wished the Bretons to become closed in and isolated. Devoted to her natal territory, it appears that she seldom left her farm and Brittany. She mentions this in one of her poems :

I have never sucked another sap
Nor set foot on other soil
Than yours my own Brittany

Nevertheless, she was absolutely not closed to the outside world. When she wrote that “he who remains in his house dislikes the wind”, she meant that it is not good to remain closed in upon oneself. Her numerous visitors were impressed by her knowledge about the world. She was self-taught and had great intellectual curiosity: she devoured any book, newspaper or magazine she happened to fall upon. Besides this she regularly listened to the radio. It was surprising to see how well informed she was about events and problems concerning the entire planet. Many of her poems illustrate how preoccupied she was with the misfortunes of the world. For example “Darbodoù” or “Lagad an heol” in which she complained in the following terms:

I saw people dying of cold.
I saw people dying of hunger.
Saw people dying in despair.
Saw people killing people, brothers striking each other.
Saw people oppressed.
Saw a great leader falling under a madman’s bullets.
Saw I don’t know how many people weeping.

If Duval was not tempted by self-absorption, neither was she in favor of the negation of self. Among her numerous visitors, many Bretons were embarrassed by their language. To justify the fact that they spoke in French, they would say, using a typical expression of the time, “I don’t speak Breton, but I understand it”. She would answer them mockingly: “Yes, like my dogs: they don’t speak Breton either, but they understand it!” She was enraged to see Bretons abandoning their language…

Why would you speak a tongue foreign
To your Country, to your Children?
It’s a crime to break the golden chain
Our Honor resides therein.

One of Duval’s great lessons of humanity, was her struggle against self-denial, not only in thought but also in action. She never ceased to fight her whole life long.


The struggles

I have always been faithful to my motto :
I do battle on every front.


A. Life struggles

As Anjela Duval writes in her poetry, farming is a never ending struggle. Her first fight has always been the struggle against the elements. Alone on her farm, she worked as hard as any man, with less physical strength and suffering from poor health. She had no tractor, only a horse with which to cultivate. Many of her urban readers had, and still have, no idea how demanding farming can be. Peasant life is arduous, and most visitors to her farm did not understand that taking some of her precious time made her life even more difficult. When in addition to this they occasionally made fun of her “brother peasants”, her anger would overflow…

Yes out, you!
I do not want
I will never tolerate
Hearing insulted in my own house
My hardworking Brothers
Servants of the Soil
Sacred Soil of my Country
Our Country. Our Mother-Country!
My Brothers. Peasants.

Working the earth was not her only daily struggle though: from a very early age she had to fight to survive. A serious illness of the bones, which she developed at the age of six, made it impossible for her to attend school before the age of eight. For the rest of her life her health was unstable. The theme of sickness and suffering appears frequently throughout her writings, particularly during her later years when her health was declining and when her hardship worsened. She also had to fight against herself.


B. The struggle against oneself

Remaining alone to take care of her farm in Traoñ-an-Dour was Anjela Duval’s own choice. As a young woman she had had many admirers, one of which won her heart. He was a marine officer, who, it is said, later became a sea captain. Right before the wedding, the couple suddenly fell apart. What happened? We are uncertain. It seems that the young seaman suggested that they set up a commerce together, but that she refused to leave her farm. Thus, they separated.

In a corner of my heart there’s a scar
That I have borne since I was young
For alas, the one I cared for
Didn’t love what I loved
He only loved cities
Distant countries, deep seas
And I only loved the fields
The fair fields of my Brittany

The scar of this sentimental disappointment remained in Duval’s heart during her entire life. While she adored nature and lived in harmony with all that surrounded her, when left alone after her parents’ death, she sometimes felt a strong feeling of melancholy.

Alone on the earth, alone in a cruel World
I am about to faint, overcome with grief

Her sadness and regret were particularly pronounced during the fifties. Later, writing helped her to overcome them. However, even after she began writing, Duval sometimes failed in her struggle against such ills. But she hid this well…

One should not load such burdens
On the shoulders of the young.
When an old person can
Carry them himself.
One should smile at their smile
Even when tormented by the sharpest pain
One should nurture their hope
In a Future that will be theirs
And that will redeem centuries of shame

Duval spent her life in poverty. It is not that her farming activities did not permit her to live otherwise, but it appears that such was her choice. This is difficult to comprehend. She said that she did not want to change anything on the farm for fear of chasing away the spirit of her dead parents. This she certainly believed, but there is also reason to believe that her poverty was also a spiritual choice. She translated a poem by the Catalan poet Ramon Soley Ceto entitled “The poor home”, in which the author praises the “spirit of poverty” and in which a man asks a woman to marry him “if she appreciates the immense value of poverty”. Perhaps this is a reminder of Duval’s lost love. Did she not choose to translate this poem because she herself was moved by the “spirit of poverty”? She deliberately chose to live as a hermit and held fast to her choices. In this sense her life is exemplary. Who indeed is brave enough to take their dreams to their limit? And who, in today’s consumer society, would be capable of deliberately choosing poverty for the entire length of their life? To a certain extent Duval was ahead of her time. Choosing to live alone and to become the master of one’s destiny was not, and still is not, an easy path for a woman, especially one living in the country. Obviously she was not a mild person. This is also apparent in her political stands.


C. The passionate activist

As we have said, self-denial made Anjela Duval angry. Cowardice in general was very distasteful to her. One senses this often in her works, in particular when she blames the Bretons for their lack of courage regarding their country and their language.

My compatriots are asleep
And our Country is drowning

Ever faithful to her ideas, she always had the courage to say and write what she believed, no matter what most people thought. She did not count her efforts and did not fear malicious gossip. Neither did she withhold her temper:

Such a Fate is ours!
There’s no more living in the Country
One must extend one’s hand to the French
And kneel before them

She never refused to help Breton political activists, even those who fought with illegal means and who were frowned upon by the majority of Bretons. Such is the case in the following writing, in which she expresses her support for the accused members of Brittany’s National Liberation Front:

In front of the Judge of the Masters
Lambs before the wolves-
Twenty-five accused
Defenders of Brittany’s Honor and Life
Will be insulted before the People
That People with Brains addled
By School, Radio, TV and media of the French

This courage and generosity bring us to Duval’s last lesson.


The gift of self

You will receive as you have given to others


A. Writing

It seems that already as a child Anjela Duval wanted to write. Indeed, in one of her last school notebooks, I found a short poem dated August 9, 1920, in which she asks God to help her become a poetess:

I want to become a little poetess
This is my heart’s wish in this world.

Forty years later her wish came true. Through her creative activity she was able to overcome her suffering, as she herself explained. She believed that everyone was made to love and that since she had no children or family, writing was a means for her to express her love for others. For her, as for many others, writing became a way to overcome the frustration of childlessness. She wrote a lot and left many poems and texts in prose. It seems that she composed her poems in the same manner as rural bards composed their songs: all day long, as she was working the soil, she meditated. As soon as she had some free time she wrote down her thoughts on any available piece of paper : an envelope, a piece of newspaper, a flyer… I found many such bits of papers in her archives. Many words were crossed out and replaced by others. But it was surprising to see how beautiful even her uncorrected drafts were. She composed her poems in her mind and not on paper. (This differs somewhat from ordinary writing procedures today, by which writers immediately set their text on paper, or on screen, and later modify it, without relying on their memory.) Later, when she was satisfied with the text, Duval copied it over on a small notebook, as modest as herself. I found about forty of these notebooks, and there may be more in the homes of the poet’s friends.

The themes in Duval’s poetry are similar to those in her life : the earth, nature, animals, faith, prayer, love of the Breton people and the fight against sickness are the most frequent ones. Other themes are equally important, though less explicit. Love and a certain form of erotic mysticism have not for example been discussed by commentators of her work. She did however write or translate several love poems such as this one:

Bring me that Love that tries to lose itself
In the depths of Being and from there to ascend
Rising invisibly along the branches of the tree of Life.

One cannot say that she wrote openly erotic poems. Yet if one sheds a psychoanalytic light on her work, certain texts reveal a new dimension. This is the case of “Va barzhonegoù”, in which she says that she writes poems…

But on the bare breast of the One I love,
On the bare skin of the country I love.
I don’t write them with a pencil stub
But with steel tools

Besides this, she translated various poems which have a certain erotic overtone, such as “Barzhoniezh Bro-Indez”, in which the author writes:

I’m dying, but I remember the joy of my first emotion
Before your face so beautifully silhouetted graceful and pure
I remember the trembling of my Being before the subtle Beauty
That enveloped you like a delicate ether.
I remember your rounded bosom so soft
Oh the fresh enchantment of Love! In dying
I remember this and that marvel of your beauty in bloom
Your deep eyes resembling lotuses under dew.

The desire for children, or rather the regret of not having any, is also very present in her work. In “Trivliad”, for example, she describes the emotions she felt upon seeing objects moving in the wind when she stood up from her work to rest her back. She realized that they were baby diapers drying in the sun…

And now, bent again
Over my work,
My eyelashes are moist
I, the old maid!

Later, in “Piv ?”, she wonders–as do many elderly farmers–what will become of her farm once she is gone.

And at the end of my time
At the end of my strength
                               I sigh!
Who will take my motto
                               After me?
Who will take my arms?
                               When they have fallen from my hands
When I have not borne a son…

Death is equally present in her work. We can mention “† Tekla”, in which she speaks to her former hospital roommate in Lannion, asking her:

Where are you Tekla?
Where is your soul?

Most importantly, one should cite the numerous poems dedicated to her parents, to her sister, and to activists dead for Brittany, as well as poems about the day of the Dead, and “Va c’halon”…

My heart is a Cemetery
In it are countless graves.
In it always a new grave,
Graves of friends and relatives,
My heart is a Cemetery!

Duval’s style of writing is not uniform. Some of her texts reveal flashes of inspiration. Others seem weaker, perhaps because she did not take the time to work on them. Whatever the inspirational quality of her works, all are written in admirable Breton. Duval mastered her language perfectly. Her syntax is irreproachable; her very rich vocabulary mingles older terms–”polished, caressed and saved from rust”–and neologisms–”the jingle of light metal”–to express her emotions and to play upon various sounds. The Breton language flowed from her pen energetically and she produced numerous lively expressions. But Duval was not only a great writer, she was also a preacher.


B. Preaching

In 1971, André Voisin, a producer at ORTF, created a television series on popular storytellers. While passing through Brittany he asked Roger Laouenan, a reporter at the Télégramme, to recommend people for him to interview. He sent him to see a certain Louis Mercier… and of course to see Anjela Duval with whom he was friendly. However, he worried somewhat about how Duval would welcome the television crew and about what she might say in front of the cameras and projectors. It is true that at first she was a little frightened by so many people arriving in her old farm with all their equipment. Yet, especially when the filming took place outside, she relaxed and revealed herself. What did she say ?

Reproach of the land deserted
Longing of a subject People
For its rights, its Freedom
Anger of the young
Who were denied their language:
Soul of a race.

Several times after that she wrote that if she had accepted the interview in a sense it was in order to act as an apostle. The impact of the show was much greater than she and Roger Laouenan had expected. Duval was an enormous success on the evening that her interview came on the air. All of France was impressed by her performance. The same was true in other countries that aired the show. It seems the viewers everywhere were moved by the strength of the poet’s convictions. After years of silent meditation followed by ten years of writing, her ideas were clear and she knew how to express them in simple terms and vivid images that hit the spot. The lack of any discrepancy between her thoughts, her words and her actions was no doubt obvious. After the first showing of the interview on December 28 1971, she received thousands of letters and visitors.

Thus, like a prophet dedicated body and soul to her sacred mission, Duval went to the end of her task. She personally answered all the letters, one by one, even though a friend offered to copy a form letter to be sent to all her new admirers. But she refused. At the time, this friend did not understand. Only ten years later, at the time of her death he realized that: “today I understand that you wanted to accomplish your vocation, and to make known the mission that was yours in this world…”

In addition to the letters, she had a neverending stream of visitors. All were welcomed in accordance with the traditional rules of Breton hospitality, that is so say almost as members of her family, with coffee, bread, butter, crepes and cakes… She set everything she had on the table for her guests, who nonetheless were sometimes condescending or curious to observe her as one would a circus animal. However, in each letter and to each visitor Duval offered a message. She preached in defense of Brittany and of her language, not like a preacher from his pulpit, but with humor and vitality. Thanks to her work, it appears that she had a certain influence on the evolution of Breton society. For her visitors were very numerous and were certainly affected by her intelligence and her sharp responses. Thus, in preaching as in other aspects of her life, Duval went very far, to the point of sacrifice.


C. The gift of self

It is not enough to give

One must give one’s self

Anjela Duval was moved by the spirit of sacrifice. As we previously noted, she first sacrificed the love of a man to her land. In one of her poems she uses the word “sacrifice” to describe the nature of her relationship to the earth.

The Certificate of my sacrifice to the Country I love
The Seal of my love for the Country is Mine
In my most tender youth
My heart full of Hope
On the bank of a tranquil brook
Its clear waters gurgling
I had planted clump by clump
The future poplar-trees

Lateror rather, simultaneously–she sacrificed her youth for her parents. In fact, it was perhaps in order to take care of them that she chose to remain on her farm, turning her fiancé away. Her parents were not young when she was born: her father was forty-three and her mother thirty-eight. Therefore they soon needed to be cared for. Who would have taken care of them had she gone away? Was this not her main concern when she refused to leave the farm of Traoñ-an-Dour ? At any rate, she gave all her energy and all her love to her parents while they were alive. When they died she went through the darkest period of her life. Fraught with anxiety, she felt that her life had lost its meaning. Thirty years after her mother’s death, she still recalled:

So painful had been the separation
So strongly knotted was our life
With the unbreakable bond of Love

However, approximately ten years after her mother’s death in 1951, and thanks to her writing she found her way and her equilibrium in a serene form of solitude. Unfortunately, her tranquility lasted only ten years. After the television interview in 1971 her life changed radically. Yet she did not reject the millions of letters and visitors who disturbed her peaceful peasant and poet’s existence. Quite the opposite, according to Roger Laouenan, she welcomed about 100 000 people during the ten years between her first appearance on television and her death in 1981! Many radio and television stations (the BBC, Finnish and Swedish television channels, etc.) produced shows about her, the hermit who had chosen such solitude… To her this responsibility represented the cross she must bear for her country, Brittany. Reflecting on her first television show, she wrote a year later:

No need to think, people
That she might have been seeking fame
It was only a sacrifice
On her part
On the alter of her Country

Using the time she should have spent on her work, on meditation, on poetry and her health, she exhausted herself. It is likely that this worsened her illness and precipitated her death.


To conclude, one can say that Anjela Duval appears to have anticipated some of the great issues we now face: the safeguard of the ecological balance necessary to the planet; the quest for meaning made more pressing by the failures of ideology; the cultural roots through which individuals seek recognition in an increasingly unified world, etc.

To each of these questions Duval brought some answers. Everyone is free to accept or refuse her ideas, but this is not the issue. This woman without a formal education, living alone on her farm, understood many of the great questions that humanity faces today. In answer to them she built a philosophy of life, expressed in her poetry. Last of all, she artfully set her life in harmony with her poetic and mystic vision of the world, to the point of death.

* English translation of: Anjela Duval hiziv
More about Ronan Le Coadic:


Duval, Anjela

1972a              “ Kaier al Louarn ”, Hor Yezh, n° 75, April.

1972b             “ Peder danevell verr ”, Hor Yezh, n° 79, August.

1973a              Kan an Douar, Brest, Al Liamm.

1973b             Hiboud al Leger, Skol.

1973c              “ Barzhonegoù all ”, Hor Yezh, n° 88, August.

1974                “ Barzhonegoù nevez ”, Hor Yezh, n° 94, March.

1980                “ Leve ar paour ”, Brest, Al Liamm, n° 201, July-August.

1982a              Traoñ an Dour, Brest, Al Liamm.

1982b             Tad-kozh Roperz-Huon, Douarnenez, Hor Yezh.

1983                Ki bihan ar feunten, Ar Releg-Kerhuon, An Here.

1986                Me, Anjela, Lesneven, Mouladurioù Hor Yezh.

1989                Rouzig ar gwiñver, Ar Releg-Kerhuon, An Here.

                        Stourm a ran war bep tachenn, Sant-Brieg, Mignoned Anjela.

Duval, Anjela – Hélias, Pierre-Jakez – Philippot, Jacques

1995                Gant ar mareoù bloaz – Au fil des saisons, Spezet, Coop Breizh.

Laouenan, Roger

1982             Anjela Duval, collection “ Bretons témoins de leur temps ”, Quimper, Nature et Bretagne.

Piriou, Yann-Ber

1971             Défense de cracher par terre et de parler breton, Paris, Éditions P.-J. Oswald. Bilingual anthology (Breton and French).

Timm, Lenora A.

1991             A Modern Breton Political Poet : Anjela Duval, Lewiston-Queenston-Lampeter, The Edwin Mellen Press.

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